Breeding materials of pea varieties characterized by resistance to lodging and shattering and increased grain yield
Purpose. To create breeding materials of pea varieties based of new highly productive varieties of different direction of use, resistant to lodging and shattering, and suitable for direct harvesting. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical and statistical. Results. 735 pea cultivars were studied in the nursery garden. Hybridization through pair crosses was carried out; 3090 flowers were pollinated; 60 hybrid combinations were produced; 2,376 productive hybrid beans and 10,038 certified seeds were obtained. The average degree of setting seeds was 77.05 % with a deviation from 32.8 to 91.7 %. In F2 hybrids, phenotypic classes of splitting were observed close to the theoretical ratio of 8.6:1.3. The variety of splitting characters and their combination in a new single genotype enables further allocation of constant forms. Among F3 hybrids we selected lines with a variety of features: apical placement of beans and their increased number, having 7–9 peas of medularum variety and 7–8 of vulgare. Among the leafless peas, resistant to lodging were the following lines: ‘1344-147/08’, ‘1412-3/10’, ‘1488-51/10’, ‘1409-41/08’, ‘1455-5/09’, and ‘1479-142/09’. The yield of these varieties significantly exceeded that of the group standard (by 0.51 t/ha). Tendril-leafed lines ‘1344-147/06’ with the yield of 2.89 t/ha, ‘1488-51/10’ (2.47 t/ha), and ‘1455-23/12’ (2.46 t/ha) were selected. They were characterized by resistance to scattering seeds, early maturation and yield that exceeded the standard by 0.46–0.89 t/ha at LSD05 of 0.18. Conclusions. Breeding-valuable pea lines characterized by high yield, resistance to lodging and shattering seeds and suitable for direct harvesting were produced.