Purpose. To create breeding materials of pea varieties based of new highly productive varieties of different direction of use, resistant to lodging and shattering, and suitable for direct harvesting. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical and statistical. Results. 735 pea cultivars were studied in the nursery garden. Hybridization through pair crosses was carried out; 3090 flowers were pollinated; 60 hybrid combinations were produced; 2,376 productive hybrid beans and 10,038 certified seeds were obtained. The average degree of setting seeds was 77.05 % with a deviation from 32.8 to 91.7 %. In F2 hybrids, phenotypic classes of splitting were observed close to the theoretical ratio of 8.6:1.3. The variety of splitting characters and their combination in a new single genotype enables further allocation of constant forms. Among F3 hybrids we selected lines with a variety of features: apical placement of beans and their increased number, having 7–9 peas of medularum variety and 7–8 of vulgare. Among the leafless peas, resistant to lodging were the following lines: ‘1344-147/08’, ‘1412-3/10’, ‘1488-51/10’, ‘1409-41/08’, ‘1455-5/09’, and ‘1479-142/09’. The yield of these varieties significantly exceeded that of the group standard (by 0.51 t/ha). Tendril-leafed lines ‘1344-147/06’ with the yield of 2.89 t/ha, ‘1488-51/10’ (2.47 t/ha), and ‘1455-23/12’ (2.46 t/ha) were selected. They were characterized by resistance to scattering seeds, early maturation and yield that exceeded the standard by 0.46–0.89 t/ha at LSD05 of 0.18. Conclusions. Breeding-valuable pea lines characterized by high yield, resistance to lodging and shattering seeds and suitable for direct harvesting were produced.
Plant Breeding and Seed Investigation
Purpose. To study the effect of seedbed humidity during the germination of Panicum virgatum L. on the intensity of germination. Methods. Laboratory analytical and statistical. Results. It is proved that the degree of wetting affects the intensity of germination. The most intensive germination was observed when using 20 to 30 ml of water per cuvet. On the 11th day after sowing when adding 20 to 25 ml/cuvette resulted in 15–16 sprouts, 30 ml/cuvet in 17 sprouts that made up 88–89 % and 89 % germination, respectively. Increasing the amount of water to 35 ml/cuvet as well as decreasing to 15 ml/cuvet decreased the number of germinated seeds. In other days of accounting similar results were obtained. In fact, on the 20th day after sowing all the seeds able to germinate did germinate. It was found that both insufficient and excessive wetting of seedbed affected the intensity of germination, but it was not decisive for the significant reduction in dormancy of seeds and increase in the number of sprouts. Conclusions. The degree of seedbed wetting influences the intensity of germination. The most intensive germination was observed when using 20 to 30 ml of water per cuvet.
Purpose. To substantiate an agronomic package aimed at simultaneous flowering, which includes planting design, top removal and irrigation. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical and statistical techniques. Results. It was determined that regulation of plant growth and development (top removal) positively influenced the intensity of flower formation. Planting design (growing space) had a significant impact on flower formation. Top removal helped to form more flowers, while decrease in the growing space led to the formation of a smaller number of flowers equally without irrigation and under irrigation. The intensity of flower formation of coffee chicory significantly increased as affected by water supply of the seed-bearing plants. It was found that the effect of ‘irrigation’ factor was the largest (49.4 %) followed by planting design (33.4 %), and top removal (17.2 %). Conclusion. The implementation of the agronomic package which included planting design, top removal and irrigation provided a significant increase in the intensity of flower formation of coffee chicory that had positive influence on yield and seed quality.
Purpose. To determine the main directions and tasks of winter barley breeding in the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical, statistical. Results. There is insufficient amount of scientific publications in recent years with regard to elaboration and extending theoretical principles of winter barley breeding under conditions of climatic changes in Ukraine, especially in the Forest-Steppe. Based on our data of many years of experimental research (2003/04–2015/16) confirmed by the world scientific achievements the main directions and tasks are assigned to be the priority of winter barley breeding in the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. There were argued the necessity of purposeful creation of varieties feature various intensity and purpose of use with appropriate quality parameters: for livestock feeding, malt and food industries. The main factors are identified to have stronger impact on winter barley yielding capacity in recent years. These are wintering conditions, uneven distribution of rainfall, higher temperatures, lodging, and affection with complex of pathogens. Conclusion. It is necessary to elaborate theoretical bases of winter barley breeding for individual programs according to the purpose of use: feed, food and malt. Within the purpose of use mentioned above both intensive and universal varieties should be developed. Generally, winter barley varieties in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine should meet high yielding capacity and stability, winter-hardiness, drought and heat tolerance, lodging resistance, resistance against powdery mildew, stripe blotch, spot blotch, net blotch, and dwarf leaf rust.
Purpose. To study the agronomic characteristics (yield, sugar content, bioethanol yield, energy yield, infestation by diseases and pests) in sterile and fertile breeding materials of beet sugar and select the best ones through top crossings in order to obtain experimental hybrids suitable for production both biofuel and sugar. Methods. Six diploid sterile lines of different origin and six multigerm diploid pollinators served as starting materials. Individual analysis of breeding value of the genotypes in terms of root yield, sugar content and infestation with black root, cercospora and pests was carried out. Energy characteristics, such as bioethanol, biogas and energy yield of sugar beet were calculation. Results. In crops of sugar beet, minor affection of leaves with cercospora (1–2 points) was observed. Pollensterile forms had a greater degree of tolerance to pathogens as compared to fertile pollinators. Yields and sugar content of multigerm pollinators were higher than that of sterile forms. Their yield ranged from 34.7 to 414 t/ha and sugar content from 14.0 to 15.6 % (the male line) against 32.5–38.3 t/ha and 13.0–14.0%, respectively (female line), which affected the yield of bioethanol, biogas and energy. Conclusions. Prospective multigerm pollinators '1180 02002 (2x)' and '1184 B2 (2x)' were selected in terms of high tolerance to all the pathogens, '1183 02024 (2x)' and '118 202 015 (2x)' in terms of ethanol yield and energy yield, '1182 02015 (2x)', '1233 Yan3 (2x)', 'CMS Uman.1212' in terms of biogas yield. Next year the selected lines will be used to produce experimental hybrids of sugar beet suitable for biofuel production.
Purpose. To identify genetic determination and phenotypic expression of sugar content characteristic in simple sterile hybrids as parent components of experimental combinations as affected by nutrition background and growing space. To select the best ones in terms of their adaptive ability to abiotic environmental factors in multifactor experiment. Methods. Variety test of simple sterile hybrids, sterility maintainers and their simple sterile analogues in various environments as follows: normal fertilization background, normal growing space (NBNGS); normal background, extended growing space (NBEGS); enhanced fertilization background, normal growing space (EBNGS); enhanced background, extended growing space (EBEGS). Results. Differentiation capacity of NBEGS environment was higher than NBNGS (5 and 7 best hybrids were selected, respectively). Against the enhanced background, extended growing space also was the best for the selection of genetic lines for their sugar content characteristic. In EBEGS selected were 8 hybrids that greatly exceed average population value, whereas in EGNGS only 5. Proportion of non-additively genes action in EGS was also higher compared to NGS (50 vs. 40%). Conclusion. Established was variability of phenotypic manifestation of sugar content against the different fertilization backgrounds and growing space. The best hybrids featured stable effect on the sugar content against both backgrounds were CМS 1/Оt 2, CМS 2/Оt 1, CМS 5/Оt 1 and CMS 2/Ot 5, as evidenced by the cumulative effect of GCA and SCA. SCA was more variable in relation to the area of supply than GCA. CMC 1 and CMC 5 lines were distinguished as carriers of additive genes controlling sugar content and were characterized by stable phenotypic expression.
Purpose. The aim of the research was to estimate corn hybrids in terms of the main agronomic characteristics, such as protein content and starch yield. Methods. Field trials, laboratory tests, and cluster analysis. Results. It was found that the hybrids under investigation had differences in morphology, including the form of leaf plate, the size, and shape of corncob, shape of grain and number of grain rows. The best hybrid in terms of yield in the Steppe zone proved to be ‘HS 2632’, which had a high protein content of 9.60 %. In Polissia zone, the best hybrid for yield and starch content was ‘Zdobutok’ with the yield of 11.38 t/ha and starch content of 76.35%, which significantly exceeded the values of the characteristics in the Steppe zone, as well as in other hybrids in the area. Two hybrids, which had high yields in Polissia zone (9.83 and 9.85 t/ha) were defined, namely ‘Svitoch 38’ and ‘Danubio’, with the last one characterized by a high protein content (9.40%) and the lowest value of the starch content (73.25%). It was determined that the closest in terms of the characteristics under study hybrids entered the same cluster. This distribution was caused by the peculiarities of inheritance of agronomic characteristics of crops. Conclusion. Based on these studies, four clusters of corn hybrids were determined in terms of a complex of agronomic characteristics as follows: ‘SI Tiptop’ and the ‘NS 2632’, ‘SI Arios’ and ‘Zdobutok’, ‘Enigma’ and ‘SI Аmplitude’, ‘MAC 24H’ and ‘Danubio’. It is recommended to grow different hybrids on a farm because they realize their genetic potential based on environment, which allows reducing the effects of unfavorable factors.
Purpose. To study the features of quality formation in basic sugar beet seeds as affected by farming techniques under the conditions of unstable moistening in the Right Bank Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical, and statistical. Results. It was found that seed germination and purity substantially depends on soil moisture during the period of seed germination, the timing of cutting and seed maturation on the seed bearers in rolls. The optimal water regime during the growing season ensured by introducing absorbent Terravit Super into the soil prior to planting provided an increase in seed yield of CMS component and sterility maintainers of 0.31–0.32 t/ha and an increase in seed germination of 5–10 %. The purity of seeds proved to be affected by the timing of harvesting. If the seed bearers were harvested too early or while being prematurely dried, the seed purity decreased by 6–10 % in comparison with the seed harvested in optimal terms. Maturation of seeds on stalks in rolls provided a significant increase in its purity and germination. Conclusions. An effective way to produce high-quality basic sugar beet seeds is to create favourable conditions for the flowering of crossing components and seed maturation as well as to provide plants with moisture throughout the growing season, thereby increasing seed yield and quality.
In the article there is the method of increase of penetrance of new resulted O types in plant-breedings materials of the Uman selection through rekombigenez with tested after economic-valuable by the signs of existent of sterility maintairnes. A base level of the productivity of new maternal forms is sufficient for introduction of them to hybridization with the purpose of receipt of trial MS hybrids.
The article highlights methodological approaches to the development of new varieties and hybrids of tomato for different uses. Having used the developed techniques we obtained a number of varieties and hybrids, widespread in production, such as Iskorka, Lahidnyi, Flora, Iryshka, Sviatoslav F1, KDS-5 F1, Bohun F1.
The article deals with the resistance of CMS hybrids, tetraploid and diploid forms of sugar beet to cercosporosis and erysiphosis. There was determined that diploid materials are less resistant than tetraploid ones, and variability in diseases degree was estimated during several years. Perspective materials for hybrids which can be used in bio-adaptive technology were selected.
The article shows the results of the research of the influence of increased nutrition area on sugar content and sugar crop in MS lines and sterility fixing lines of sugar beet. It is determined specific reaction of genotypes to modifying factor, its most essential influence on characteristics variability, most perspective materials for formation of simple sterile hybrids as mother components have been chosen.