seed maturation

The quality of sugar beet seeds as affected by farming techniques

Purpose. To study the features of quality formation in basic sugar beet seeds as affected by farming techniques under the conditions of unstable moistening in the Right Bank Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical, and statistical. Results. It was found that seed germination and purity substantially depends on soil moisture during the period of seed germination, the timing of cutting and seed maturation on the seed bearers in rolls. The optimal water regime during the growing season ensured by introducing absorbent Terravit Super into the soil prior to planting provided an increase in seed yield of CMS component and sterility maintainers of 0.31–0.32 t/ha and an increase in seed germination of 5–10 %. The purity of seeds proved to be affected by the timing of harvesting. If the seed bearers were harvested too early or while being prematurely dried, the seed purity decreased by 6–10 % in comparison with the seed harvested in optimal terms. Maturation of seeds on stalks in rolls provided a significant increase in its purity and germination. Conclusions. An effective way to produce high-quality basic sugar beet seeds is to create favourable conditions for the flowering of crossing components and seed maturation as well as to provide plants with moisture throughout the growing season, thereby increasing seed yield and quality.