Purpose. To determine the main directions and tasks of winter barley breeding in the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical, statistical. Results. There is insufficient amount of scientific publications in recent years with regard to elaboration and extending theoretical principles of winter barley breeding under conditions of climatic changes in Ukraine, especially in the Forest-Steppe. Based on our data of many years of experimental research (2003/04–2015/16) confirmed by the world scientific achievements the main directions and tasks are assigned to be the priority of winter barley breeding in the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. There were argued the necessity of purposeful creation of varieties feature various intensity and purpose of use with appropriate quality parameters: for livestock feeding, malt and food industries. The main factors are identified to have stronger impact on winter barley yielding capacity in recent years. These are wintering conditions, uneven distribution of rainfall, higher temperatures, lodging, and affection with complex of pathogens. Conclusion. It is necessary to elaborate theoretical bases of winter barley breeding for individual programs according to the purpose of use: feed, food and malt. Within the purpose of use mentioned above both intensive and universal varieties should be developed. Generally, winter barley varieties in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine should meet high yielding capacity and stability, winter-hardiness, drought and heat tolerance, lodging resistance, resistance against powdery mildew, stripe blotch, spot blotch, net blotch, and dwarf leaf rust.
Purpose. To determine the laws of manifestation of abnormal changes in growth and development of sunflower plants as affected by herbicide Euro-Lightning applied at various rates. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical, and statistical. Results. On the basis of these studies it can be stated that application of different doses of Euro-Lightning affects the shape of sunflower calathium, but further germination of seeds of plants from the calathium allowed to obtain normally developed progeny. Most often, we face different kinds of calathium deformation as resulted from the application of the high rate of the herbicide, namely 14.0 plants with deformation per 1,000 plants, that was by 6.7 more than under the application of recommended by the manufacturer doses. The obtained equations allow high-precision forecast (88–92%) of occurrence of phenotypic changes in sunflower stands as affected by Euro Lightning application. The correlation coefficient between herbicide application rate and the number of plants with deformed calathium has a close positive bonding force (r = 0.92), indicating that increased doses of herbicide results in increasing the number of plants with deformed calathium. Conclusions. The application of high consumption rates of herbicide Euro-Lightning (2.0 l/ha), as well as uneven application, results in the increased number of abnormal changes in populations resistant to the herbicide regardless of sunflower hybrid. The established regression equations between the doses of herbicide and abnormal calathium allow to predict the occurrence of abnormal changes resulted from herbicide Euro-Lightning application in sunflowers stands with 88–92% precision.
Purpose. To theoretically substantiate and develop agrobiological basics of sugar beet hybrids cultivation ensuring effective implementation of their breeding and genetic potential under the conditions of the Central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field, laboratory and statistical. Results. Analysis of yield of sugar beet hybrids grown in Tetiiv region showed that the value of heterosis during 2007–2010 manifested differently in diploid and triploid hybrids. For example, hybrid ‘Ukrainskyi CMS 70’ had the root yield of 27.9 t/ha, the sugar content of 14.4%, sugar yield of 4.02 t/ha, that was less by 3.7 t/ha, 0.7%, and 0.78 t/ha, respectively, than in triploid hybrid Shevchenkivskyi. According to the research, the most productive hybrid appeared to be Shevchenkivskyi, whose average yield was 4.32 t/ha, sugar content 15.5 %, sugar yield 6.7 t/ha. Hybrids ‘Bilotserkivskyi CMS 57’ and ‘Ukrainskyi CMS 72’ had these figures virtually identical, but smaller as compared to the hybrid ‘Shevchenkivskyi’. ‘Shevchenkivskyi’ was found to have the highest plasticity having responded positively to improving growing conditions and created an increase in yield. Conclusion. On the average for three years, in the area of research farm Shevchenkivske, triploid hybrid 'Shevchenkivskyi showed the highest value of heterosis, namely root yield of 43.2 t/ha, the sugar content of 15.5 %, sugar yield of 6.7 t/ha. The highest root yield was marked in 2006 (56.5–63.1 t/ha) for hydrothermic coefficient HTC = 1.2 during growing season; the highest sugar content in 2008 (15.4–16.0%) for the HTC = 1.1.
The article presents the results of the analysis of varieties of peas (Pisum sativum L.) domestic and foreign selection for protein content, the weight 1000 seed and yield. The regularities of changes in these traits were investigated according to environmental conditions. The varieties with high levels of adaptability and promising for selection and practical use.