Efficiency of different methods of soil tillage
Purpose. To study the effect of different technologies of soil tillage on agronomical and physical properties of soil and productivity of sunflower. Methods. Field, laboratory, statistical, analytical. Results. The field experiment was conducted in 2014/2015. The object of research was topsoil. Seeds of sunflower hybrid Yason were sown at the rate of 55,000 plants/ha. In the studied treatments of soil different agronomical and physical properties of soil were created. The most close to optimal soil properties were obtained after ploughing, which created the best conditions for plant development. Thus, at the ploughing to a depth of 20–22 cm the yield of sunflower seeds was 2.56 t/ha, while subsurface ploughing to a depth of 14–16 cm and disking to a depth of 8–10 cm resulted in yield of 2.43 t/ha and 2.29 t/ha, respectively, and no-till resulted in 1,90 t/ha. It was found that basic treatment of soil influences water consumption by plants. The research results showed that the costs of one ton of sunflower seeds had increased in the treatment with subsurface ploughing by 1.5 % and with shallow tillage by 2.6 %. The most expensive was no-till treatment (3681 UAH/t). It was by 34.4 % higher than treatment with ploughing. Conclusions. The results showed that growing sunflower is highly profitable given any main soil tillage. The best indexes of yield, profit and return were obtained in the treatment with ploughing.