: sunflower

Efficiency of different methods of soil tillage

Purpose. To study the effect of different technologies of soil tillage on agronomical and physical properties of soil and productivity of sunflower. Methods. Field, laboratory, statistical, analytical. Results. The field experiment was conducted in 2014/2015. The object of research was topsoil. Seeds of sunflower hybrid Yason were sown at the rate of 55,000 plants/ha. In the studied treatments of soil different agronomical and physical properties of soil were created. The most close to optimal soil properties were obtained after ploughing, which created the best conditions for plant development. Thus, at the ploughing to a depth of 20–22 cm the yield of sunflower seeds was 2.56 t/ha, while subsurface ploughing to a depth of 14–16 cm and disking to a depth of 8–10 cm resulted in yield of 2.43 t/ha and 2.29 t/ha, respectively, and no-till resulted in 1,90 t/ha. It was found that basic treatment of soil influences water consumption by plants. The research results showed that the costs of one ton of sunflower seeds had increased in the treatment with subsurface ploughing by 1.5 % and with shallow tillage by 2.6 %. The most expensive was no-till treatment (3681 UAH/t). It was by 34.4 % higher than treatment with ploughing. Conclusions. The results showed that growing sunflower is highly profitable given any main soil tillage. The best indexes of yield, profit and return were obtained in the treatment with ploughing.

Anomalies of sunflower to use of herbicides Euro-Lightning

Purpose. To determine the laws of manifestation of abnormal changes in growth and development of sunflower plants as affected by herbicide Euro-Lightning applied at various rates. Methods. Field, laboratory, analytical, and statistical. Results. On the basis of these studies it can be stated that application of different doses of Euro-Lightning affects the shape of sunflower calathium, but further germination of seeds of plants from the calathium allowed to obtain normally developed progeny. Most often, we face different kinds of calathium deformation as resulted from the application of the high rate of the herbicide, namely 14.0 plants with deformation per 1,000 plants, that was by 6.7 more than under the application of recommended by the manufacturer doses. The obtained equations allow high-precision forecast (88–92%) of occurrence of phenotypic changes in sunflower stands as affected by Euro Lightning application. The correlation coefficient between herbicide application rate and the number of plants with deformed calathium has a close positive bonding force (r = 0.92), indicating that increased doses of herbicide results in increasing the number of plants with deformed calathium. Conclusions. The application of high consumption rates of herbicide Euro-Lightning (2.0 l/ha), as well as uneven application, results in the increased number of abnormal changes in populations resistant to the herbicide regardless of sunflower hybrid. The established regression equations between the doses of herbicide and abnormal calathium allow to predict the occurrence of abnormal changes resulted from herbicide Euro-Lightning application in sunflowers stands with 88–92% precision.